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Platinum / Gold

 •  Platinum 

    Overview of Gold

      Is Platinum and White gold are same ?

 

The Precious Metal Platinum

Platinum is a special metal with unique properties, and a sister metal to gold and silver. Unlike gold or silver, platinum’s history of being used as money is limited to a short period of Russian Rubles. Platinum was discovered much later than silver and gold, not until 1557, and not in abundance until 1750, when the Spaniards colonized the northern regions of South America.
Platinum bullion coins are struck from the most prestigious mints in the world. Platinum Eagles are produced by the U.S. Mint, Platinum Maple Leafs by Canada’s Royal Canadian Mint, and Platinum Koalas by Australia’s Perth Mint. However, the supply is very limited and coins are difficult to obtain.
In the late 1990s, when platinum traded at about the price of gold, investor interest in platinum developed, leading, in 1997, to the U.S. Mint introduction of Platinum Eagles in a new design. Platinum Eagles were well received, and in the first full year of production (1998), 133,000 of the 1 ounce Platinum Eagles were minted. As the price of platinum pushed higher, investor interest in Platinum Eagles waned. 2003 saw only 8,007 of the Platinum Eagles minted, compared to more than 400,000 of the 1 ounce Gold Eagles.
Platinum bullion is presently seeing low interest. Investors who buy platinum at high prices relative to gold pay smaller markups than would be the case at smaller premiums to gold. Unfortunately, platinum bullion coin investors who want current year dates on their platinum coins (where the supply is slim indeed) can expect to pay large premiums over back-dated platinum bullion coin prices

>> Platinum History

>> Early Use

>> Jewelry

>> Platinum Beauty

>> Platinum Origins

 

Platinum History
Platinum, like gold, has a long and distinguished history. Its use began in antiquity and it has undergone resurgence in popularity over the last 200 years. Platinum was held in high esteem during early Egyptian times. Native people in South and Central America worked it as early as 100 B.C.
Spanish conquistadors discovered platinum artifacts among the gold they were seeking when they came to the new world. They named the curious metal "platina," or "little silver." They also considered it worthless, and discarded it. Platinum didn't reach Europe until the 18th century, but then it caught on in a big way. King Louis XVI elevated it by terming it "the metal of kings."
For centuries, the only large amounts of platinum outside of South America were found in Russian mines. Nowadays, platinum is far more valuable than gold. Platinum's initial uses were probably limited by its hardness and its very high melting point. The early forging and casting techniques made it quite a difficult metal to work with.
During the latter part of the 19th century, and the first half of the 20th, platinum was the premier metal for all-important jewelry. Platinum dominated the world of jewelry design during the Edwardian era, and the Art Deco period well into the 1930s. It all came to an abrupt end in World War II, when platinum was declared a strategic metal and its use banned for all non-military purposes.
Widespread knowledge of the white metal platinum stretches back only a few hundred years, versus thousands for gold. Despite being worked with some skill by South American Indians over 1,000 years ago, not until the Spanish conquest of the New World during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries did news reach Europe of this new metal. The Spanish first considered it a nuisance because it interfered with their gold mining activities. Platinum’s extraordinary properties did interest European scientists and was noted that it would not “melt by fire or by any of the Spanish arts.” Heavier than gold and virtually impossible to corrode with gases or chemicals, in 1751, platinum was recognized as a newly discovered element.


Early Use
During the latter eighteenth century, platinum had some industrial uses. It was used to make durable laboratory instruments in Berlin in 1784. In France crucibles for glass production used it, a significant use still today. Platinum also began to impress jewelers and goldsmiths. Leading metal workers, such as Marc Janety, Royal Goldsmith to Louis XVI, and Pierre Chabaneu, of Spain, were using platinum to make expensive cutlery, watch-chains and coat buttons.
Early in the 19th century, new refining techniques increased platinum’s availability. It was soon being used in gun parts, sophisticated batteries and fuel cells, the production of caustic chemicals (the first platinum sulphuric acid boiler weighed over 400 ounces) and the purification of hydrogen.
Platinum from limited availability to money
Increased platinum use was limited by its supply. In 1820, Columbia, still the only major producer of platinum in the world, ceased exporting the metal. Then in 1822, Russian alluvial platinum was proved to be present in the gold fields of the Ural Mountains. The Russian government made platinum into roubles. Over the next 18 years, the Russian government minted almost 500,000 ounces of platinum and, perhaps more importantly, introduced to the world the notion that platinum was like gold, a store of value.


Jewelry
Platinum jewelry remained rare until high-temperature jewelers’ torches were developed. After this, jewellery makers made quick advantage of platinum. As jewelers became more adept at using platinum, it quickly became the diamond setting of choice.
Limited Sources
The sources of platinum production remained limited. The demand for platinum is essentially satisfied by the mining activities in just two regions. The Bushveld Complex, which is just north of South Africa’s capital, Pretoria, produce more than two thirds of the annual platinum supply. The Noril’sk-Talnakh region in the extreme north of Siberia in Russia supplies most of the rest. Russia is the only nation with significant stocks of platinum and many believe that these may be running out.
Platinum Bullion
In 1975, after the Arab Oil Embargo sparked increases in precious metals prices, platinum bars that were small enough for the individual investor to buy were introduced in Japan. With platinum’s huge price changes during the late 1970s and early 1980s interest in platinum bullion investing spread to Europe and the United States. Two platinum fabricators, Johnson Matthey & Co. Ltd., and Engelhard Corporation began to produce one and ten ounce platinum bars.
From being the metal that polluted the gold of the Conquistadors to its recognition as being the rarest or even the most precious of the precious metals, platinum’s odyssey has given it the investment performance of a precious metals hedge with the potential of the scarcest of industrial commodities.

Platinum Beauty
The appeal of platinum is in its appearance. Its white luster is unique. It is also the strongest precious metal used in jewelry, and is almost twice as heavy as 14-karat gold. This weight is one of platinum's strongest selling points, because it gives "heft" to fine jewelry, which people naturally equate with value.
In recent years platinum has rapidly grown in popularity. It's become the new choice for many diamond engagement rings because its luster brings out the brilliance of diamonds far better than gold.
Many fashion consultants agree that platinum (and white gold) is more compatible with fairer skin tones. The Japanese seem to be listening -- almost 85% of platinum jewelry produced every year is purchased by Japanese consumers


Platinum Origins
Despite its growing popularity, platinum remains one of the world's rare metals. The annual worldwide production of platinum amounts to some 160 tons, compared to about 1,500 tons of gold. It can be found in just a handful of regions of the world. The mining and refining processes are both arduous and time-consuming. For example, in order to extract a single ounce of platinum, about 10 tons of ore need to be mined. After that, the refining process takes a full five months.
Platinum in jewelry is actually an alloyed group of six heavy metals, including platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium. These other metals are so similar to platinum in weight and chemistry that most were not even distinguished from each other until early in the nineteenth century.
Today, it is often alloyed with copper and titanium. It's the only precious metal used in fine jewelry that is 90% to 95% pure, largely hypoallergenic, and tarnish-resistant. Look for platinum jewelry marked 900Pt, 950 Plat, or Plat.
Platinum Care
One final word about precious metals: Like gold, platinum is durable, sturdy and dependable, making it an ideal setting for your precious diamond jewelry. However, to get a lifetime of enjoyment from your jewelry, be sure to keep it clean and safe.
Do not wear platinum jewelry during rough work or when handling harsh chemicals.
Store it in a fabric-lined box away from other pieces so it does not get scratched.
Finally, check any diamond settings periodically for possible damage to prongs or bezels. If you see a loose prong, or if the setting looks out of line, immediately bring it to a professional for repair.

 

 

 

Overview of gold:


Gold is the mostly highly prized of all metals. Its bright yellow glitter and malleability has made it, since the dawn of history, the metal most treasured. The earliest craftspeople used gold to fashion decorative pieces of all kinds. In the Middle Ages, artisans were trained as goldsmiths to create jewelry and ornaments of the highest order, some surpassing work done by the craftsmen of today.
Gold found in its native state is rarely pure 24k, but is usually associated with silver and often with mercury. In its natural state of pure gold, the substance is very malleable and can be hammered into very thin sheets. When the silver content is a high percentage of a naturally-occurring gold mass, the metal is called electrum, a natural alloy. Gold is also found in tellurides and ore containing quartz wherein it is either visible, or enclosed in particles of sulfide minerals such as chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, and arsenopyrite. In some high-production gold mines, the gold is not visible and can be seen only on a highly polished surface when viewed through a high- powered microscope.
Gold has no oxides and is not affected by oxygen in the atmosphere as are other metals. This is why gold does not tarnish -- tarnish is the result of metal reacting with oxygen in a process called oxidation. Gold is malleable to the point that it can be hammered into a leaf or sheet of foil 3/1,000,000 inch thick (0.000003 inches) on an area approximately 6 square feet. The thin sheet is translucent and transmits a greenish light through the leaf.
Since gold alone is too soft to hold a form, gold is alloyed (combined with other metals) in order to make jewelry. When gold is alloyed, its ductility is diminished, but its malleability remains constant, except when large percentages of copper are added to the alloy. Nickel used as a white gold alloy has the same characteristics as silver. Zinc is added to the white gold alloy and lightens the color, but amounts in greater percentage than 14% of the entire alloyed mass will change the color to red and make the alloy brittle. The reason for using zinc in gold alloys is to absorb the oxygen to prevent silver and copper oxides in the mix.

 

• Gold •


  Gold Quality
                  Gold's purity is measured in karats. The term "karat" harks back to the ancient bazaars where "carob" beans were used to weigh precious metals. 24 karat is pure gold, but its purity means it is more expensive and less durable than gold that is alloyed with other metals. Different alloys are used in jewelry for greater strength, durability and color range.
The karatage of the jewelry will tell you what percentage of gold it contains: 24 karat is 100 percent, 18 karat is 75 percent, and 14 karat is 58 percent gold. When comparing gold jewelry, the higher the number of karats, the greater the value.
Europeans have long embraced 18-karat gold as their metal of choice, and with good reason. Its rich yellow color, luxurious look and feel have an extraordinarily sensual appeal; many European women treat 18-karat gold like a second skin, even wearing it to the beach!
Today, women in the U.S. and around the globe are "trading up" and treating themselves to the beauty and opulence of 18-karat gold.

   Karat Marks
               When buying gold jewelry, always look for the karat mark. All other things being equal, the higher the karat, the more expensive the piece. In the United States, 14-karat gold, or 583 parts pure gold, is the most common degree of fineness. Nothing less than 10 karats can legally be marked or sold as gold jewelry in the U.S. However, lower karatages, such as 8-karat gold and 9-karat gold, are popular in other countries.
18-karat gold is 18/24ths, or three-quarters pure gold, and jewelry of this fineness is marked 18k or 750, the European designation meaning 75% gold.
Always look for the karat mark or "k" that appears on the back of the piece. By U.S. law, if a karat mark appears you should also see the manufacturer's trademark to assure you that the karat marking is accurate. The country of origin should also appear.
In addition to the karat mark, every piece of gold jewelry should be stamped with a hallmark or trademark of its maker, and sometimes its country of origin. These designations assure you that you are buying genuine karat gold jewelry. Heavier pieces contain more gold.


  Gold Types
              Gold Filled, also called Gold Overlay, refers to a layer of at least 10-karat gold that has been permanently bonded by heat and pressure to one or more surfaces of the support metal, then rolled or drawn to a prescribed thickness. The karat gold must be at least 1/ 10 of the total weight.
          Gold Plate means that a layer of plating of 10-karat gold or better has been bonded to a base metal. The karat gold content may be less than 1/20, but it must be properly identified by weight in terms of total metal content. Gold Leaf is just gold plating that's been pounded and applied by hand.

   Gold Colors


  Yellow gold is alloyed with silver and copper. It is the most frequently used type of gold there is. Malleable, ductile, and generally non-corrosive, it has a high melting point and is not susceptible to compression.

 

  White gold is alloyed with a large percentage of silver, or a selection of other white metals. The percentage of gold naturally varies, according to the amount of other metal used. White gold is highly reflective and not subject to tarnish. The ancient term for it was Electrum. Its use                  predates that of Palladium and Platinum.



  Rose gold is alloyed with copper, and perhaps silver. The proportions are about one part of copper to three parts of 24-karat gold.

 

   Gold Pricing
Gold pricing is based on a number of factors, including karatage, gram weight, design and craftsmanship. The karatage and gram weight tell you how much gold is in a piece, but don't rely on these alone to determine price. Remember, a price based solely on gram weight does not reflect the work that has gone into the piece.
Other important factors to consider are the jewelry's construction and design. The techniques of construction can make a piece more durable and flexible for added comfort. A well-made piece in a classic design will give you years of wear and enjoyment and, if cared for properly, will last a lifetime. Unique design, intricate details, gemstones or a special clasp may add to the price.
Gold jewelry is mainly produced by machine. Any additional hand finishing or textural interest raises the cost. Similar looking pieces may have vastly different price tags. This is because different pieces may have specific characteristics that make them unique. So look carefully to notice any differences and similarities. Often, it's these small details that give you pleasure through the years that you enjoy a piece of jewelry, and ensure that your children will also enjoy it.

    Gold Care
Gold is durable, sturdy, dependable, and makes an ideal setting for your precious diamond jewelry. However, to get a lifetime of enjoyment from your jewelry, be sure to keep it clean and safe.
Do not wear jewelry during rough work or when handling harsh chemicals.
Store it in a fabric-lined box away from other pieces to preserve it from getting scratched.
Finally, check the diamond settings periodically for any damage to the gold prongs or bezels. If you see a loose prong, or if the setting looks out of line, bring it to a professional jeweler for repair at once.

 Gold Uses

Gold is an ancient metal of wealth, commerce and beauty, but it also has a number of unique properties that make it invaluable to industry. These properties include:


 Resistance to corrosion

 
Electrical conductivity 
 


• Ductility and malleability
  


Infrared (heat) reflectivity 


• Thermal conductivity


Gold’s superior electrical conductivity, malleability, and resistance to corrosion have made it vital in components used in a wide range of electronic products and equipment, including computers, telephones, cellular phones, and home appliances.
Gold has extraordinarily high reflective powers that are relied upon in the shielding that protects spacecrafts and satellites from solar radiation and in industrial and medical lasers that use gold-coated reflectors to focus light energy. And because gold is biologically inactive, it has become a vital tool for medical research and is even used in the direct treatment of arthritis and other intractable diseases.
The demand for gold in industry is steady and growing. The supply of gold from stored inventory and from mining operations is limited and will remain so. Demand from investors who want to posses this precious metal is steady, and increases during periods of world crises or instability. The result is a market with much more upside potential than down.
Gold is an excellent hedge against inflation, and protects earnings for the future. Modern investors can invest in gold the traditional way — by purchasing gold bullion in the form of bars or coins — or they can trade in gold or gold futures electronically, or by investing in gold mining or refining companies.


The Many Uses of Gold

Of all the minerals mined from the Earth, none is more useful than gold. Its usefulness is derived from a diversity of special properties. Gold conducts electricity, does not tarnish, is very easy to work, can be drawn into wire, can be hammered into thin sheets, alloys with many other metals, can be melted and cast into highly detailed shapes, has a wonderful color and a brilliant luster. Gold is a memorable metal that occupies a special place in the human mind.

When Spanish explorers first arrived in the "New World" they met the native South Americans. These two cultures had been separated by a vast ocean, they had never touched one another, they spoke different languages and lived entirely different lives. Yet they had one thing in common - they both held gold in highest esteem and used it to make some of their most important objects.

Throughout the history of our planet almost every established culture has used gold to symbolize power, beauty, purity and accomplishment. Today we continue to use gold for our most significant objects: wedding rings, Olympic medals, Oscars, Grammys, money, crucifixes and ecclesiastical art. No other substance of the same rarity holds a more visible and prominent place in our society.

Jewelry: The Primary Use of Gold


The production of ornamental objects was probably the first use of gold over 6000 years ago. Gold is found in the pure state, is very easy to work and was probably the first metal used by humans. Today, most of the gold that is newly mined or recycled is used in the manufacture of jewelry. About 78% of the gold consumed each year is used in the manufacture of jewelry.

Special properties of gold make it perfect for manufacturing jewelry. These include: very high luster; desirable yellow color; tarnish resistance; ability to be drawn into wires, hammered into sheets or cast into shapes. These are all properties of an attractive metal that is easily worked into beautiful objects. Another extremely important factor that demands the use of gold as a jewelry metal is tradition. Important objects are expected to be made from gold.

Pure gold is too soft to stand up to the stresses applied to many jewelry items. Craftsmen learned that alloying gold with other metals such as copper, silver, and platinum would increase its durability. Since then most gold used to make jewelry is an alloy of gold with one or more other metals.

The alloys of gold have a lower value per unit of weight than pure gold. A standard of trade known as "karatage" was developed to designate the gold content of these alloys. Pure gold is known as 24 karat gold and is almost always marked with "24K". An alloy that is 50% gold by weight is known as 12 karat gold (12/24ths) and is marked with "12K". An alloy that contains 75% gold by weight is 18 karat (18/24 = 75%) and marked "18K". In general, high karat jewelry is softer and more resistant to tarnish while low karat jewelry is stronger and less resistant to tarnish - especially when in contact with perspiration.

Alloying gold with other metals changes the color of the finished products (see illustration at right). An alloy of 75% gold, 16% silver and 9% copper yields yellow gold. White gold is an alloy of 75% gold, 4% silver, 4% copper and 17% palladium. Other alloys yield pink, green, peach and even black colored metals.

 

Financial Gold - Coinage, Bullion, Currency Backing



Because gold is highly valued and in very limited supply it has long been used as a medium of exchange or money. The first known use of gold in transactions dates back about 6000 years. Early transactions were done using pieces of gold or pieces of silver. The rarity, usefulness and desirability of gold make it a substance of long term value. Gold works well for this purpose because it has a high value, is durable, portable and easily divisible.

Some early printings of paper money were backed by gold held in safe keeping for every unit of money that was placed in circulation. The United States once used a "gold standard" and maintained a stockpile of gold to back every dollar in circulation. Under this gold standard, any person could present paper currency to the government and demand in exchange an equal value of gold. The gold standard was once used by many nations but it eventually became too cumbersome and is no longer used by any nation.

The gold used as a financial backing for currency was most often held in the form of gold bars, also known as "gold bullion". The use of gold bars kept manufacturing costs to a minimum and allowed convenient handling and storage. Today many governments, individuals and institutions hold investments of gold in the convenient form of bullion.

The first gold coins were minted under the order of King Croesus of Lydia (a region of present-day Turkey) in about 560 BC. Gold coins were commonly used in transactions up through the early 1900's when paper currency became a more common form of exchange. Gold coins were issued in two types of units. Some were denominated in units of currency, such as dollars, while others were issued in standard weights, such as ounces or grams.

Today gold coins are no longer in wide use for financial transactions. However, gold coins issued in specific weights are popular ways for people to purchase and own small volumes of gold for investment. Gold coins are also issued as "commemorative" items. Many people enjoy these commemorative coins because they have both a collectable value and a precious metal value.

 

Uses of Gold in Electronics

 

The most important industrial use of gold is in the manufacture of electronics. Solid state electronic devices use very low voltages and currents which are easily interrupted by corrosion or tarnish at the contact points. Gold is the highly efficient conductor that can carry these tiny currents and remain free of corrosion. Electronic components made with gold are highly reliable. Gold is used in connectors, switch and relay contacts, soldered joints, connecting wires and connection strips.
A small amount of gold is used in almost every sophisticated electronic device. This includes: cell phones, calculators, personal digital assistants, global positioning system units and other small electronic devices. Most large electronic appliances such as television sets also contain gold.

One challenge with the use of gold in very small quantities in very small devices is loss of the metal from society. Nearly one billion cell phones are produced each year and most of them contain about fifty cents worth of gold. Their average lifetime is under two years and very few are currently recycled. Although the amount of gold is small in each device, their enormous numbers translate into a lot of unrecycled gold.

 

Use of Gold in Computers



Gold is used in many places in the standard desktop or laptop computer. The rapid and accurate transmission of digital information through the computer and from one component to another requires an efficient and reliable conductor. Gold meets these requirements better than any other metal. The importance of high quality and reliable performance justifies the high cost.

Edge connectors used to mount microprocessor and memory chips onto the motherboard and the plug-and-socket connectors used to attach cables all contain gold. The gold in these components is generally electroplated onto other metals and alloyed with small amounts of nickel or cobalt to increase durability.

 

Use of Gold in Dentistry

 

How would iron work as a dental filling? Not very well... your dentist would need blacksmithing tools, your smile would be rusty a few days after a filling and you would need to get used to the taste of iron. Even at much higher expense, gold is used in dentistry because of its superior performance and aesthetic appeal. Gold alloys are used for fillings, crowns, bridges and orthodontic appliances. Gold is used in dentistry because it is chemically inert, nonallergenic and easy for the dentist to work.

Gold is known to have been used in dentistry as early as 700 B.C. Etruscan "dentists" used gold wire to fasten replacement teeth into the mouths of their patients. Gold was probably used to fill cavities in ancient times;, however there is no documentation or archaeological evidence for this use of gold until a little over 1000 years ago.

Gold was much more generously used in dentistry up until the late 1970's. The sharp run-up of gold prices at that time motivated the development of substitute materials. However, the amount of gold used in dentistry is starting to rise again. Some motivation for this comes from concerns that less inert metals might have an adverse effect on long-term health.

 

Medical Uses of Gold

 


Gold is used as a drug to treat a small number of medical conditions. Injections of weak solutions of sodium aurothiomalate or aurothioglucose are sometimes used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. Particles of a radioactive gold isotope are implanted in tissues to serve as a radiation source in the treatment of certain cancers.

Small amounts of gold are used to remedy a condition known as Lagophthalmos, which is an inability of a person to close their eyes completely. This condition is treated by implanting small amounts of gold in the upper eyelid. The implanted gold "weights" the eyelid and the force of gravity helps the eyelid close fully.

Radioactive gold is used in diagnosis. It is injected in a colloidal solution that can be tracked as a beta emitter as it passes through the body. Many surgical instruments, electronic equipment and life-support devices are made using small amounts of gold. Gold is nonreactive in the instruments and is highly reliable in the electronic equipment and life-support devices.

 

Uses of Gold in Aerospace

 

If you are going to spend billions of dollars on a vehicle that when launched will travel on a voyage where the possibility of lubrication, maintenance and repair is absolutely zero, then building it with extremely dependable materials is essential. This is exactly why gold is used in hundreds of ways in every space vehicle that NASA launches.

Gold is used in circuitry because it is a dependable conductor and connector. In addition, many parts of every space vehicle are fitted with gold-coated polyester film. This film reflects infrared radiation and helps stabilize the temperature of the spacecraft. Without this coating, dark colored parts of the spacecraft would absorb significant amounts of heat

Gold is also used as a lubricant between mechanical parts. In the vacuum of space, organic lubricants would volatilize and they would be broken down by the intense radiation beyond Earth's atmosphere. Gold has a very low shear strength and thin films of gold between critical moving parts serves as a lubricant - the gold molecules slip past one another under the forces of friction and that provides a lubricant action.

 

Uses of Gold in Awards and Symbols of Status

 

What metal is used to make the crown worn by a king? Gold! This metal is selected for use because gold it is THE metal of highest esteem. It would make no sense to make a king's crown out of steel - even though steel is the strongest metal. Gold is chosen for use in a king's crown because it is the metal associated with highest esteem and status.

Gold is associated with many positive qualities. Purity is another quality associated with gold. For this reason, gold is the metal of choice for religious objects. Crosses, communion ware and other religious symbols are almost always made with gold for this reason.

Gold is also used as the first place winner's medal or trophy in almost any type of contest. First place winners at the Olympic Games are given gold medals. The Academy Awards Oscars are gold awards. Music's Grammy Awards are made of gold. All of these important achievements are honored with awards made of gold.

 

Uses of Gold in Glassmaking

 

Gold has many uses in the production of glass. The most basic use in glassmaking is that of a pigment. A small amount of gold suspended in the glass when it is annealed produces a rich ruby color.

Gold is also used when making specialty glass for climate controlled buildings and cases. A small amount of gold dispersed within the glass or coated onto the glass surface will reflect solar radiation outward, helping the buildings stay cool in the summer, and reflect internal heat inward, helping them stay warm in winter.

The visor on the helmet of an astronaut's space suit is coated with a very thin film of gold. This thin film reflects much of the very intense solar radiation of space, protecting the astronaut's eyes and skin.

 

Gold Gilding and Gold Leaf



Gold has the highest malleability of any metal. This enables gold to be beaten into sheets that are only a few millionths of an inch thick. These thin sheets, known as "gold leaf" can be applied over the irregular surfaces of picture frames, molding or furniture.

Gold leaf is also used on the external and internal surfaces of buildings. This provides a durable and corrosion-resistant covering. One of the most eye-catching uses of gold leaf is on the domes of religious buildings and other important structures. The cost of this "roofing material" is very high per square foot; however, the cost of the gold is only a few percent of the total project cost. Most of the cost goes to the labor of highly skilled artisans who apply the gold leaf.

 

Future Uses of Gold

 

Gold is too expensive to use by chance. Instead it is used deliberately and only when less expensive substitutes cannot be identified. As a result, once a use is found for gold it is rarely abandoned for another metal. This means that the number of uses for gold have been increasing over time.

Most of the ways that gold is used today have been developed only during the last two or three decades. This trend will likely continue. As our society requires more sophisticated and reliable materials our uses for gold will increase. This combination of growing demand, few substitutes and limited supply will cause the value and importance of gold to increase steadily over time. It is truly a metal of the future.

 

Is white gold and Platinum are same?


White Gold
White gold is an alloy of gold and some white metals such as silver and palladium. White gold can be 18kt, 14kt, 9kt or any karat. For example, 18kt yellow gold is made by mixing 75% gold (750 parts per thousand) with 25% (250 parts per thousand) other metals such as copper and zinc. 18kt white gold is made by mixing 75% gold with 25% other metals such as silver and palladium. So the amount of gold is the same but the alloy is different.
Traditionally nickel was used in white gold, however, nickel is no longer used in most white gold made today as nickel can cause reactions with some people. We do not use nickel in our white gold

When white gold rings are new they are coated with another white metal called Rhodium. Rhodium is a metal very similar to platinum and Rhodium shares many of the properties of platinum including its white color.
The rhodium plating is used to make the white gold look more white. The natural color of white gold is actually a light grey color. The Rhodium is very white and very hard, but it does wear away eventually. To keep a white gold ring looking its best it should be re-rhodium plated approximately each 12 to 18 months. Most local jewelers are able to rhodium plate jewelry for a cost effective.


Platinum
Platinum is a white metal, but unlike gold it is used in jewelry in almost its pure form (approximately 95% pure). Platinum is extremely long wearing and is very white, so it does not need to be Rhodium plated like white gold.
Platinum is very dense (heavy), so a platinum ring will feel heavier than an 18kt gold ring.
Platinum is, however, very expensive. A platinum ring will be approximately twice the price of an 18kt white gold ring (excluding gemstone costs).